1: GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA
The pyramid of Giza was last on the list, as it is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in Egypt. The Great Pyramids of Giza are the oldest and the the only one of the “Seven Wonders of the Ancient World” Which are still standing in the middle of the Egyptian Desert. The pyramids are amazing feats of construction from thousands of years ago. The pyramid is estimated to have around 2,300,000 stone blocks that weigh from 2 to 30 tons each and there are even some blocks that weigh over 50 tons.The interior temperature is constant and equals the average temperature of the earth, 20 Degrees Celsius (68 Degrees Fahrenheit). It was originally covered with casing stones (made of highly polished limestone). These casing stones reflected the sun’s light and made the pyramid shine like a jewel. They are no longer present being used by Arabs to build mosques after an earthquake in the 14th century loosened many of them. It has been calculated that the original pyramid with its casing stones would act like gigantic mirrors and reflect light so powerful that it would be visible from the moon as a shining star on earth. Appropriately, the ancient Egyptians called the Great Pyramid “Ikhet”, meaning the “Glorious Light”. How these blocks were transported and assembled into the pyramid is still a mystery. Center of Land Mass: The Great Pyramid is located at the center of the land mass of the earth. The east/west parallel that crosses the most land and the north/south meridian that crosses the most land intersect in two places on the earth, one in the ocean and the other at the Great Pyramid.The base of the pyramid covers 55,000 m2 (592,000 ft 2) with each side greater than 20,000 m2 (218,000 ft2) in area.
2: HANGING GARDEN OF BABYLON
In the ‘Hanging Gardens’, the plants did not actually hang. They grew from many different levels of terraces (similar to balconies).The word ‘hanging’ comes from the Latin word ‘pensilis’ or the translation.As for the other supposed builder – King Nebuchadrezzar II (reigned c. 605– c.561 BC), it is said that he built the legendary gardens to console his wife Amytis of Media, because she was homesick for the mountains and greenery of her homeland. The gardens, presumed to have been located on or near the east bank of the River Euphrates, about 31 miles south of Baghdad, Iraq. A more recent theory proposes that the gardens were actually constructed in the city of Nineveh, on the bank of the river Tigris. It is possible that Through the ages, the location of the Hanging Gardens may have been confused with gardens that existed at the city of Nineveh, since tablets from the place clearly show gardens.The gardens were about 75 feet (22 meters) high. The image of the gardens is impressive not only for its blossoming flowers, ripe fruit, gushing waterfalls, terraces lush with rich foliage, and exotic creatures, but also for the engineering feat of supplying the massive, raised gardens with soil and water. German architect and archaeologist Robert Koldewey who is known for revealing the semilegendary Babylon as a geographic and historical reality, discovered huge vaults and arches at the site. He also uncovered an ancient hydraulic system like a pump drawing water from the river.
3: STATUE OF ZEUS AT OLYMPIAD
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was created by a sculptor named Phidias. It took him 12 years, from 430 to 422 BC, to complete the statue. Zeus was considered the king of the Greek gods and this magnificent statue was created to honor him. It was placed in the Temple at Olympia, a shrine to Zeus where Olympic Games took place every four years. The statue was destroyed by fire in the fifth century A.D.The Statue of Zeus at Olympia is about 42 feet tall.The statue was made of a wooden frame and covered in ivory and gold panels. The sculptor Phidias had previously created a similar sized statue of the goddess Athena. The sculpture of Athena was made for the Parthenon in Athens.A visitor to the Statue of Zeus in 97 A.D., Dio Crysostomos described the statue as being made of gold, ebony, ivory and precious stones. He also said that there were images of animals (such as the half lion/half man sphinx) and Greek gods carved into the chair. In Zeus’ right hand was a figure of the goddess of victory Nike. In his left hand he held a scepter topped with an eagle.Archaeologists discovered Phidias’ workshop in the 1950s. During their excavation they found the tools that he used to create the Statue of Zeus at Olympia.
4: TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS
The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus was built to honor Artemis, one of three maiden goddesses of Olympus. This temple is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was built in Ephesus (an ancient city), which today would be near Selcuk, Turkey. It had to be rebuilt at least three times due to fire, flood and a mob that was determined to destroy it.Each time it was rebuilt it became larger and even more beautiful and impressive.The Temple of Artemis is also known as the Temple of Diana.The first temple was built in approximately 800 BC.The first temple was destroyed in the 7th century. Reconstruction began in 550 BC. It took about 10 years to rebuild it. Some historians say it was destroyed due to a flood. Others believe it was due to war
5: LIGHTHOUSE OF ALEXANDRIA
The Lighthouse of Alexandria was the first lighthouse in the world. Construction began in 290 BC and took twenty years to complete. When it was done it was the tallest building in the world at the time, except for the Great Pyramid. It was built on the island of Pharos, to help guide trade ships into its busy harbor at Alexandria, Egypt. The lighthouse was damaged by several earthquakes and eventually became an abandoned ruin. In 1994 some of the remains of the lighthouse were discovered by French archaeologists in Alexandria’s Eastern Harbor.The city Alexandria was named by Alexander the Great. It was one of 17 cities that he named after himself, but Alexandria was one of the few to survive. It is still a prosperous city today.Alexander the Great Died in 323 BC. The Lighthouse at Alexandria was built beginning in 290 BC, many years after Alexander the Great’s death.The lowest level of the lighthouse was 100 feet square and 240 feet high. The second level had eight sides and was about 115 feet tall. The third level was a 60 foot high cylinder that had an opening at the top to allow a space where the fire burned to light the way for sailors in the night. On top of this was a statue in honor of Poseidon, the god of the sea.